Having interpersonal differences in clinical psychiatry practices causes serious problems. While a standard dose of drug administered is insufficient for some patients, it may create significantly negative effects for some. For both types of patients, it is required to have trials between different treatments in order to find the proper drug and quantity.
Through the studies carried out over the effectiveness and negative results of the drugs, it has been possible to recognize the effects of genetic factors, and the concept of Pharmacogenetics emerged. Pharmacogenetics aims to shed light on the variability of the effectiveness of drugs by basing int on hereditary differences.
The purposes of the personalized medicine thanks to pharmacogenetics:
- To predict the patient’s tendency
- To determine the suitable help for a diagnosis, the hereditary description of which is made
- To optimize the treatment based on the biological attributes of the patient, and to minimize the side effects
While pharmacogenetics observes the genetic changes that occur upon the use of drugs, it focuses on the specific effect of a specific drug on a single gene. In the researches made on this field, it was observed that there were race-related differences in terms of the effectiveness and side effects of the drug. Nevertheless, due to the fact that human is a complex structure, it was seen that a research conducted over a single gene yielded limited data. The pharmacogenetic researches were initiated with the consideration that other genes and sets of genes must be simultaneously taken into account. Pharmacogenomics examines the effect of a drug on multiple genes and sets of genes, while taking countless factors into consideration. The effective factors are controlled through the analysis of genetic changes that occur via epigenetic factors, which include both environmental factors (sleep, feelings, exercise, nutrition, drugs, etc.) and hereditary factors.
Although it is attempted to control these changes, which depend on many factors, by means of scientific methods, mistakes are inevitable in personalized medicine.