Art and Psychiatry

What Are Progress and Development?

Z. Soner Dinç Philosophy, Master’s Degree)
The concepts “progress”, “development and “change” have become a part of our daily lives. We hear things like “progressive, changeable, developmental” almost every day. But what are they? It is possible to say that the concept of progress and the origin of the discussions around almost date back to the same time. Becoming much denser following the massive destruction caused by World War II (1945), the concept of “progress” (German: der Progress or der Fortschritt), which became/was made a cursed concept that must be almost absolutely abstained from, either has become actually forbidden or has been forced into a position which is nearly compulsory to be avoided, as emphasized in his quotation “It is said that Tzar Nicholas I of Russia [1796-1855] banned the use of the word “progress”: Currently, philosophers and historians from Western Europe or even from the United States, though belatedly, have come to the same conclusion as he did.” by Edward Carr, a great historian. Within this long process, the consideration of the concept of progress in an extremely distorted, superficial manner stuck inside the boundedness of a daily jargon has become a circumstance and a norm being almost generally accepted. Following the expressions that presented a negative and certain judgment about it from the beginning, the points of determinant significance, such as what the progress is, how it appeared, what it quintessentially meant, had initially become obscure and then were reduced to a secondary position which never became main topics of conversation, losing their essential position. Due to this fact, it is virtually obligatory to take a look at the date of appearance of the concept of progress in the first place.

What are Consciousness and Being Conscious?

Z. Soner Dinç Philosophy, Master’s Degree)
The concept of consciousness is probably one of the concepts we use the most in our daily lives. Being the fundamental concept of psychology (and psychiatry) today, consciousness is also a significant concept for epistemology, a sub-branch of philosophy. Conscious derives from the root “to know”, which originally has an etymological association with “knowledge”, and it is a state that forms in conjunction with the state of knowing, in respect of it being a constituent. According to the Oxford Dictionary, one of the classical English dictionaries, consciousness means a person’s awareness or perception of something. According to the Cambridge Dictionary, however, consciousness means the state of understanding and realizing something.

Relation Between Reason and Understanding

Z. Soner Dinç Philosophy, Master’s Degree)
With the famous quote “Cogito ergo sum / I think therefore I am” by Descartes who is shown among the initial figures of the modern philosophy, the researches on the superiority of what is reasonable, and its decisiveness became intensified. Simultaneously with this fact, the discussions regarding what the ability called “reason” was, how the information is processed on it, and what the origins of reason (German: Vernunft) and understanding (German: Verstand) that is directly associated with became one of the essential topics of agenda in the English-speaking world in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Relation Between Reason and Morality

Z. Soner Dinç Philosophy, Master’s Degree)
Since quite ancient times, the relation claimed or hoped to exist between reason and morality has been an issue contemplated by humans who have attempted to provide various answers for this old question. For hundreds and thousands of years, answers have been sought for many questions like what kind of a structure the so-called ability “reason” has, how it is used, what morality is and how it emerged.